The ketose diet.

Important note: It is recommended that you go on a diet before consulting your doctor first. This rule is not only relevant to those who have identified the disease, but also to everyone else.

Unlike most diets today, the ketogenic diet was purely medical from the beginning. They are still on the agenda. Generally speaking, the term "diet" initially had nothing to do with weight loss. This word means a set of nutritional rules that must be followed in the treatment of a certain disease in a given situation-during postoperative treatment.

The resurgence of the keto diet is largely due to an American film producer whose child has chronic epilepsy. Although he tried many of the most famous and famous neuropathologists and seemed to have tried all the most effective antiepileptic drugs in nature, the boy's condition did not improve at all. An almost desperate father read a lot of literature on epilepsy treatment in the local library, and unexpectedly encountered a description of the ketogenic diet. Until now, no expert has recommended it to him. He immediately gave his son this diet, and he was very happy that the boy's seizure frequency was greatly reduced.

Well, the ketogenic diet was invented to reduce the occurrence of seizures-mainly in children. At the same time, the calorie content in the diet has not been reduced, but carbohydrates have replaced fat. When the children were on a 36-hour diet, their seizure frequency did decrease.

The ketogenic diet is currently used not only to treat epilepsy, but also to treat Alzheimer's disease, fatty liver disease, and even certain cancers. Generally, it is undeniable that it has medical benefits. How about losing weight?

Keto diet

The ketogenic diet is a diet composed of high-fat (animal fat and certain vegetable oils), animal protein, and low-carbohydrate diets. Therefore, the decomposition of fat can meet about 80% of the body’s energy requirements (contentThe fat in the daily diet of Europeans provides 30% to 35% of the energy required by the human body during the day). Similar to what happens during fasting, the breakdown of large amounts of fat leads to an increase in body acidity. This may explain why the use of this dietary complex causes a decrease in the frequency of seizures.

The purpose of the ketogenic diet is to get the body into ketosis.

Ketosis is a pathological state of the human body, and ketone bodies dominate the tissues. The state of ketosis means that the body only uses the fat stored under the skin to meet its energy needs, thereby preventing muscle failure. In ketosis, you absorb energy from ketones (carbonyl compounds formed when fat is broken down). By the way, ketones are an excellent source of energy for the brain and can almost replace glucose.

Another positive feature of ketosis is that in this state, you will hardly feel hungry, so you will eat less, which means you will not be able to fully pay for your energy costs.

In order to make the human body enter a state of ketosis, the structure of the diet should make fat dominate the diet, and it is mainly saturated food (90% of the fat in the diet is based on calories).

In fact, the diet that many professional bodybuilders use in the last week before the competition can also be called the ketogenic diet: it consists only of salmon (usually grilled, but can also be other forms), peanut butter and green vegetables (salad) Composition, broccoli, spinach, cabbage). It is best to add flaxseed oil or walnut oil to this diet. There are already more proteins here, which can reduce problems, but not completely eliminate them.

The pros and cons of the classic ketogenic diet

The advantage of

is ​​that this diet is very effective, effective, and effective! The most important thing is that you will almost never experience hunger, which means that it is very easy to shift the calorie intake limit. Ketones are an excellent source of energy for the brain.

It is also important that the ketogenic diet can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease due to the sharp decrease in insulin secretion. However, for those who lead an active lifestyle, since insulin is a powerful anti-catabolic drug, the plus sign can easily become a minus sign. The decrease in insulin secretion is superimposed on the ability of the ketogenic diet to cause muscle acidosis, which means that proteolysis is enhanced, that is, it helps the body's own protein breakdown. And catabolism may get out of control. Of course not immediately, but it will definitely be within 3-4 days.

It is simply impossible to follow the classic ketogenic diet for a long time-it starts vomiting in the most natural way. For children with epilepsy, it is not without the ketogenic diet being restricted to 36 hours.

The ketogenic diet is currently used to treat several types of cancer. In particular, this is prostate cancer, where diet is used to reduce the ability to produce IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1).

Another disadvantage is the decrease in free testosterone levels in plasma.

The main danger of a keto diet is increased blood ketone levels, which lower blood acidity (pH), which can lead to death in extreme cases. This condition is called "ketoacidosis". First, this applies to patients with severe and moderate diabetes. If it does not exist, there is no need to worry, because the blood of healthy people contains as many ketones as the human body can handle.

It takes some time for the body to give up glucose and learn to feed the brain with ketone bodies, so physical and mental activity may decrease in the first week. The main symptoms are drowsiness, dizziness and dizziness.

Many people have experienced this very painfully, and "walked away" the next day. However, on the third or fifth day of rebuilding the body, the health condition has completely returned to normal.

Lack of fiber can slow down bowel function. The focus of the ketogenic diet is the complete excretion of carbohydrates. Therefore, the diet should be composed of protein and fat, and fiber should be complex carbohydrates. Fiber can be ingested in a pure form, and only green vegetables or lettuce leaves are included in the diet. These vegetables or lettuce leaves contain a lot of crude dietary fiber.

An important shortcoming of the diet is the lack of micronutrients, which is caused by the elimination of carbohydrate-containing foods from the diet. Basically, any meat or dairy products recommended in the ketogenic diet lack most vitamins or minerals. The best way to avoid deficiency is to take vitamins and minerals, that is, dietary supplements that contain minerals. Various minerals such as zinc or magnesium are essential to the body's vital functions and hormone levels.

Contraindications

The existence of contraindications to the ketogenic diet or indicates the existence of liver diseases, kidney diseases, metabolic diseases (including congenital and genetically determined metabolic diseases), progressive encephalopathy, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular and lipid diseasesIt is the same as taking valproic acid preparations (valproate) at the same time. Other contraindications for its use are currently unknown.

When the ketogenic diet is prescribed, the diet of each child and adult is only calculated by the doctor! Strictly follow the child's diagnosis, age and weight, and his nutritional needs separately. The content of basic nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate) in food should be selected according to a certain ratio, which can only be determined by professionals! During the course of treatment, this ratio may change. Therefore, it is necessary for the attending physician to continuously monitor the patient and, if necessary, to correct the diet by the attending physician. The patient’s diet includes a variety of fatty foods-bacon, heavy cream, vegetable oils, such as flaxseed. In countries where the ketogenic diet is widely used, the food industry produces a variety of specialty foods that can provide a rich and varied menu.

For beginners, nutritionists have developed special milkshakes, which contain a lot of fat, not only can you get drunk, but also can be eaten frozen like ice cream. This can help children adapt to high-fat foods and produce the necessary biochemical changes in the body to provide anti-epileptic effects. During the treatment process, the doctor needs to master the menu, otherwise the child will quickly get tired of monotonous eating and may even refuse to eat at all. In various diseases (such as colds), metabolism always changes. This reduces the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet. In this case, the attending physician must be consulted to correct the menu.

What can I eat on a ketogenic diet and what recommendations should I follow?

What can you eat on a ketogenic diet

The focus of the ketogenic diet is foods rich in protein and fat. It is important that moderate fat intake is beneficial or even necessary, because fat can cause a long-lasting feeling of fullness.

Fat can be divided into three categories:

  • Saturated fat (found in red meat and dairy products);
  • Unsaturated (found in vegetable oils and vegetables);
  • Monounsaturated (found in fish and olives).

Fat has many functions in the human body:

  • Energy (lack of calories, fat can be broken down to provide energy for the body);
  • Protective (a thin layer covering all organs, with high heat insulation performance);
  • Structure (part of cell membrane);
  • Enzymes (certain lipids are part of cofactors);
  • Hormones (certain lipids are hormones and part of regulators).

The best choice is protein-rich foods-meat, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, cheese and its derivatives. Carbohydrates are acceptable, but in small quantities. 30-50 grams of fiber is sufficient for digestion.

It is strongly recommended not to use any form of starchy foods (cereals, pasta, potatoes) and sugar. Almost all fruits contain a lot of sugar in one form or another, so they are also banned. You should always check the ingredients on the label because even a glass of milk contains about 15 grams of carbohydrates. In addition, a series of essential food additives are being studied, and if they are only harmful, they must also be excluded.

Drink plenty of water to promote weight loss. Water can help the body burn more calories and prevent constipation. Limit caffeine intake. Exercise regularly.

Exercise can help you lose fat faster through a ketogenic diet. Walking, cycling, running in the park or working out in the gym. Introducing a daily physical exercise schedule can help you keep your heart healthy and lose weight.

Have a good night's sleep. In the early stages of ketosis, you may feel very tired. Sleep at least 7-8 hours a day to restore energy. A good rest will also help you lose weight.

If you experience symptoms similar to a cold, please consult your doctor. Many people experience fatigue and mild headaches during ketosis. Sometimes the side effects become severe enough to cause medical attention.

When does the diet take effect?

The effect of using the ketogenic diet gradually begins within the first three months after the start. Usually, long-term treatment is needed (a few years, more often 2-3 years), after which continuous improvement is usually observed, and treatment can be continued even with a normal diet. Therefore, there is no need to follow a ketogenic diet for life.

In many cases, positive results have already been seen in the first or second week of treatment. However, sometimes there is no obvious effect within one to two months of using the diet-in this case, it is too early to conclude that the treatment is ineffective, and perhaps the doctor needs to calculate the biochemical parameters more carefully.

In the traditional sense, this is more of a change to therapeutic fasting, followed by "loading" foods that cause ketosis. During the first three days of treatment, you should refuse any food completely and only drink any amount of drinking water. It is forbidden to add or not add gas mineral water, artificially sweetened beverages and fruit juices. You can drink green tea. The water can be boiled or purified. During this period, it is necessary to reduce the patient's exercise activities, sometimes requiring bed rest. The next three days should be very slow, introducing food in a quarter of the usual portion. In the process of selecting products, you need to follow the following principles: fat is divided into 4 portions, protein and carbohydrates are 1 portion.

The menu is somewhat reminiscent of the so-called fat diet for weight loss. The most important thing is that you should completely eliminate foods such as grains, fruits, ordinary bread, carrots, beets, potatoes and pasta.

Complications

As with any other treatment, in some cases using a ketogenic diet can cause some adverse reactions. These adverse reactions are mainly listed below.

  • Hair loss.Some children experience hair loss or infrequent hair growth under the background of long-term use of a ketogenic diet. It is believed that this complication is mainly related to the lack of a mineral diet.
  • Linear increase delay.In some patients, this type of developmental disorder has been recorded, but until today, its relationship with the ketogenic diet is still under debate. Increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The ketogenic diet is composed of almost 90% fat, which in some cases can lead to an increase in blood cholesterol and other lipids. At any lipid content (cholesterol-greater than 800 mg%, triglycerides-greater than 1000 mg%), there is no need to stop eating. Reducing the ratio of fat to protein carbohydrates from 4: 1 to 3. 5: 1 usually results in a rapid decrease in lipid levels to acceptable levels.
  • Kidney stones.The complication of this ketogenic diet is about 1 in 6 patients, which is thought to be due to insufficient fluid intake in children. Therefore, when taking a ketogenic diet, urine should be checked to determine density and detect impurities in the blood. If necessary, perform an ultrasound of the kidneys.
  • Drowsiness and drowsinessmay be due to excessive ketosis or the toxicity of concurrent antiepileptic drugs. Even if the dose is not increased, the ketogenic diet will increase the blood concentration. Therefore, it is necessary to check its concentration in the blood and reduce the dose of potential sedative drugs (such as phenobarbital and benzodiazepines) in time.
  • Disadvantages of the keto diet
  • ConstipationIt is usually attributed to the fact that you are following a ketogenic diet and restricting drinking while eating relatively few foods. Increasing your daily fluid intake by 100-150 ml can help avoid bowel problems.
  • OverweightPatients are due to burn too many calories instead of fat. Therefore, when formulating a ketogenic diet, the energy capacity of the diet must be adapted to their individual needs.
  • Lose weight.This can be explained by the individual characteristics of metabolism and the patient's physical activity level. If it turns out that the weight of the child has decreased by 400-500 grams within a month, the energy of the diet can increase by about 100 kcal per day. It should be remembered that increasing the calorie intake of young children or patients with low levels of physical activity does not have to increase the energy consumed at a time by more than 25 kcal.

We remind you again that the personal menu for this diet should be made by an expert!

When using a ketogenic diet, the patient needs to undergo thorough clinical and laboratory tests before starting treatment, including registration of EEG and ECG data and biochemical blood tests.